When the standard of symbolism is applied, it can be shown that artifacts of a clearly symbolic nature appear only after 100,000 years ago (Henshilwood et al. 2002, Henshilwood et al. 2004, d'Errico et al. 2009, Texier et al. 2010). These artifacts include beads as well as ochre and ostrich eggshell with geometrically engraved patterns. Obvious symbolic artifacts do not occur consistently in the archaeological record between 100,000 and 50,000 years ago, and disappear periodically (Hovers & Belfar-Cohen 2006). The fluctuating presence of symbolic artifacts may be related to changing climate and its effect on population sizes. Or perhaps it is only when ornaments with culturally dictated, three dimensional form, figurative art, depictions of mythical imagery, and musical instruments, associated with the Upper Palaeolithic of Eurasia appear, that ancient people truly became like us (Conard 2008, 2010). The absence of symbolic artifacts does not necessarily indicate the absence of symbolic capacities. It may be that ancient people used rituals, such as scarification and body painting, and objects and ornaments of perishable material that did not leave traces in the archaeological record to express their symbolic intentions. It should also be kept in mind that the presence or absence of various modern behavioral traits can be ascribed to climatic change, group size, and cultural exchange rates, rather than a lack of capacity for modernity (Richerson et al. 2009; Powell et al. 2009).
I would estimate that the stylistic breakdown of music on Nollywood films is as follows: 40% is a generic pop-synthesizer mix, biased toward the highlife idiom; 20% is generic mood-underscoring, using the synthesizer, but emulating styles of mood-underscoring common in Hollywood films and television soap operas, from the United States, Mexico, and Brazil; another 20% is a pop musical mix reflective of the local radio playlists in West Africa, from the point of view of urban youth, and this is strongly biased toward North American R&B and hip-hop, and Jamaican reggae and dancehall (or ragga), with some cool jazz and piano bar thrown in for good measure (especially for love scenes). Another 10% should be Christian gospel styles popular in contemporary Nigeria and Ghana. The remaining 10% is variously distributed, and includes traditional-style drum-and-percussion music; traditional African folksongs, used to identify rural and customary settings; familiar Western orchestral or concert music (Handel, Mozart, Vivaldi, Offenbach, Classical Gas), sometimes used to identify a European setting, or sometimes just as an alternative underscore; and other sundry sound effects, including eerie electronics and wind sounds for the many supernatural incidents that these films support.
A AFS 370 The Psychology of the Black Experience (3) In-depth examination of the extant psychological literature on blacks. Analyzes varying themes, theories, perspectives, and research that relate to the psychology of blacks. Focuses on the contemporary work of black behavioral scientists involved in the quest for scholarly self-determination and for redefinition of the psychological fabric of the black experience. Selected topics are identity, personality, motivation, achievement, and mental health. Prerequisite(s): junior or senior standing.
ANTH 0017 Latino Music, Migration, And Identity. Analysis of the production, dissemination, and consumption of the most important forms of popular music--mambo, boogaloo, salsa, conjunto, corrido, banda, contemporary rock, and rap--listened to and danced by U.S. Latinos from World War I to the present. Readings, films, and recordings examine the historical and social contexts from which these musical forms have emerged, highlighting the intricate relationship between popular music, migration, and the formation of social and cultural identities.
ANTH 0162 Art And Aesthetics. Aesthetic systems in cross-cultural perspective, including the works of art in societies often having no categories for differentiating such work. Issues of specialization, gender, embeddedness, symbolism, craft versus fine art, and representation (the invention of the "primitive") via examples from the Amazon, the American Northwest, Aboriginal Australia, and the twentieth-century avant-garde.
ANTH 0181 Anthropology And Feminism. Implications of feminist perspectives for anthropological studies of ritual and symbolism, work and exchange, "development," the environment, self and personhood, colonialism, apartheid, class, and sexuality. Relationship between feminist anthropology, postmodernism, and experiments in anthropological fieldwork and writing. Critiques of dominant forms of Western feminism by Third-World feminists.
Appreciating the artistry of Smith can be challenging for 21st century listeners. Our ears are accustomed to the insistent, amplified rhythms that propel rap, R&B and rock, and we expect songs to have verses, choruses and occasional bridges that lend a measure of sonic variety to these three- or four-minute-long productions. In contrast, the classic blues, with their acoustic instrumentation, might sound quiet, slow and repetitive. The repeated lines and consistent chord changes inherent to the classic 12-bar structure can feel static to contemporary listeners, but even in the 1920s, there were listeners who found Smith's Southern blues too slow. Smith's primary audience comprised Southern working-class African Americans who connected with the content, feel and pace of her music, and it was likely that they were already familiar with the form. The precise starting point of the blues is hazy, but scholars place its origins in the post-Emancipation musical practices of African Americans living in the South. It was music that formerly enslaved people created, using it to explore deeply personal experiences and the worries, tensions and desires that accompanied them.
Courses in the International and Global Issues area focus predominantly on countries or issues outside the United States, encouraging students to understand contemporary issues from an international perspective. Students develop knowledge of one or more contemporary global or international issues, gain a greater awareness of varied international perspectives, and improve their skills of analysis and critical inquiry.
3 Credits. This course introduces the discipline of sociology from a macrosociological perspective, emphasizing large-scale changes in social organization and institutions. We examine the global forces that shape societies, and the historical, political, social, cultural and economic origins of contemporary social problems. We consider competing theoretical models used in the study of social change as well as the conceptual and methodological challenges in analyzing societies different from one's own. 2b1af7f3a8